1.0 EXTERNAL ORGANS DESCRIBED IN THE QUR’AN Head and Neck: The following organs were mentioned in the Qur'an: head (ra’as, p 279 2:196 … 5:63), cheek (khadh, 2:19, 71:7, 8:21, 75:4), chin (dhiqn, 17:107, 17:109, 36:8), neck (raqbat, 22:9, 47:4), neck (‘unq, p 281 8:12 … 111:5), and face (wajh, p 283 2:144 … 75:2). Upper limb: The following parts of the upper limb were mentioned in the Qur'an: digit (2:19, 71:7, 8:21, 75:4), elbow (mirfaq, p 283 5:6), hand (yad, p 283-4 2:249 .. 111:1). Fingers are used to point in salat (KS p. 86), in dua (KS p. 86), and in khutbah (KS p. 86). Trunk and abdomen: The following parts of the trunk were mentioned by the Qur'an: back (dhahr, p 280 2:101 .. 94:3), upper arm (‘idhd 28:35), forehead (jabiin 9:35, 37:102), janb (3:191, 9:103, 9:35, 32:6) Lower limb: The following parts of the lower limb were mentioned in the Qur'an. Leg (rijl, p 279 2:196 … 5:63), shin (saaq, 37:44, 75:29), and ka’ab (5:6). The bone which is the framework of the skeleton was mentioned in the Qur'an (‘adhm, p 281 8:12 … 111:5, 17:49 … 79:11). The skeleton’s functions: support, movement, and protection. Muscles are mentioned in the Qur'an as meat (lahm, 23:14, 49:12): Human civilisation is based on the energy produced by contractions of human and animal muscles. Joints: A human has 360 joints (KS p.105) Uses of organs for worship, work, aggression, sinning. Prostration in salat on 17 bones (MB # 464 p 252, KS p. 274). Organs can also be misused to commit sins. Zina of organs other than the genitalia eg the eye, ear, and the leg was mentioned by the prophet (KS p. 264, MB #2061 p 968). Organs will act as witnesses against the owner on the last day so that he or she can not deny their sins. Significance of wudhu: (a) only exposed organs are washed: the face, hands, forearm, leg, ear, mouth, nose, and hair (Muslim #436, 437) (b) cleaning the nose (Muslim #462) clears germs and dirt. Wudhu is not valid without istinjai which cleans the excreta away. 2.0 THE UPPER LIMB & LOWER LIMB The upper limb is for manipulation and is specialized for manual dexterity. The lower limb is for posture and mobility and is specialized for weight-bearing and walking.. The hand: The sophisticated human hand is responsible for the advanced human civilisation. It is also responsible for the destruction of war and a lot of human tragedies. Humans are able to use their hands to make tools that enable them to exploit their environment more efficiently. The hands are capable of very precise movements using the small muscles of the hand (thenar eminence, hypo-thenar eminence, and the longitudinal muscles of the palm). The hand has three types of grip: power grip, hook grip, and precision grip. The arm: the upper and forearms are levers to position the hand. They are capable of very fine and sophisticated movements. Most land animals walk and support their weight on 4 limbs. Humans have an upright posture and are able to walk on the lower limbs leaving the upper limb free for manipulation. Control of posture and movement in humans is very advanced to enable upright walking. Posture-regulating system involves the central nervous system and muscles. Voluntary muscles are finely controlled (Ganong p. 185). The role of the pyramidal system. Fight or flight instincts: Humans like animals are adapted to fight or run away in case of danger. 3.0 SOCIAL INTERACTION The human facial muscles play a very important role in verbal and non-verbal communication making possible the building of a sophisticated civilisation. Facial expressions can show happiness or anger. The Prophet used to show anger on his face. He also smiled and laughed. The vocal muscles help in producing noises that may be happiness, anger, or frightening. Hand-shake. Body language is an effective non-verbal form of communication. Vocalisation and language: are necessary for human social interaction. They are based on movements of muscles and skeletal parts. Organs of vocalisation: The mouth, pharynx, and larynx produce voice for communication. The recitation of the Qur’an in a sweet voice (Muslim #1728, 1730, 1732, 1734, 1735) is made possible by these organs. Larynx (hanjara 33:10, 40:18, hulqum 56:87): The vocal cords of the larynx vibrate to produce laryngeal sound. The larynx controls loudness, pitch, and quality of sound. The mouth, the pharynx, and the nasal cavities modify the laryngeal sounds. Toungue (lisaan, p 282-3 5:78 … 90:8-9): The changing shape of the tongue controls air flow producing different sounds. By changing position the tongue varies the size and shape of the buccal cavity which acts as a resonator. Muteness (bukm) was mentioned in the Qur'an. 2:18, 2:171, 6:39, 8:22, 16:76, 19:97 4.0 PHYSICAL EXERCISE Continuous movement and exercise of the musculo-skeletal system is a physiological necessity for gorowth in infants and to prevent disuse atrophy. Salat as physical exercise that is repeated five times a day. Nafila prayers are an additional opportunity. Salat exercises most muscle groups. Although we say that salat has the benefit of physical exercise, we should not forget that this is not its only or even most important reason. Salat is first and foremost ibadat that is carried out for the pleasure of Allah. The Prophet exercised by wrestling as a young man. He used to race against his wife Aishah. The Prophet used to walk in haste (harwalat). Omar Ibn al Khattab encouraged youths to play games that give them strength such as horse riding. Physical exercise is best undertaken while doing some work that is useful for the community. It does not make much sense to exercise just for the sake of exercising.