THE DESIGN IN NATUREby: Harun Yahya
Let's think of an aspirin pill for a moment; you will immediately recall the mark in the middle of it. This mark is designed in order to help those who intake half a dose. Every product that we see around us is of a certain design even though not as simple as the aspirin pill. Everything from vehicles we use to go to work, to TV remotes.
"Design", briefly, means a harmonious assembling of various parts into an orderly form towards a common goal. Going by this definition, one would have no difficulty in guessing that a car is a design. This is because there is a certain goal, which is to transport people and cargo. In realization of this goal various parts such as the engine, tires and body are planned and assembled in the plant.
However, what about a living creature? Can a bird and mechanics of its flying be a design as well? Before giving an answer, let us repeat the evaluation we did for the example of a car. The goal at hand, in this case, is to fly. For this purpose, hollowed bones, strong muscles that move these bones are utilized together with feathers capable of suspending in the air. Wings are formed aerodynamically, and metabolism is in tune with the bird's need for high levels of energy. It is obvious that the bird is product of a certain design.
If one explores other creatures besides a bird, similar facts are attained. There are examples of a certain meticulous design in every creature. If one continues further on this quest, one would discover that our selves are also a part of this certain design. Your hands that hold these pages are functional as no robot hands could ever be. Your eyes that read these lines are making vision possible with such focus that the best camera on earth simply cannot.
Hence one arrives at this important conclusion; all creatures in Nature, including us, are of a Design. This, in turn, shows the existence of a Creator Who designs all creatures at will, sustains the entire nature and holds absolute power and wisdom.
However, this truth is rejected by the theory of evolution that was formed in the middle of 19th century. The theory set forth in Charles Darwin's book "On The Origin of Species" asserts that all creatures evolved within a chain of coincidences and essentially mutated from one another.
According to the fundamental assertion of this theory all living things go through minute and coincidental changes. If these coincidental changes help the creature then it gains advantage over the others, which in turn is carried onto following generations.
This scenario has been passed around as if it is a very scientific and convincing one for 140 years. When scrutinized under a bigger microscope and when compared against the examples of the Design in creatures Darwin's theory paints a very different picture i.e.
Darwinism's explanation of creation is nothing more than a self-conflicting vicious circle.
Let us first focus on the "coincidental changes". Darwin could not provide a comprehensive definition to this concept due to lack of genealogical knowledge in his time. The evolutionists who followed him put forth the concept of "mutation" on this subject. Mutation is arbitrary disconnections, dislocation or shifts of genes in living things. Most important point is that there is not one single mutation in history that is shown to improve the condition of genetic information of a creature. Nearly all the known cases of mutations disable or harm these creatures and the rest are neutral in effect. Therefore, to think that a creature can improve through mutation is same as shooting at a crowd of people and hope that the injuries will result in healthier and improved individuals. This would clearly be nonsense.
As importantly, on contrary to all the scientific data, even if one assumes that a certain mutation could actually improve a being's condition,
Darwinism still cannot be delivered from inevitable collapse. The reason for this is a concept called "irreducible complexity".
The implication of this concept is that majority of systems and organs in living things function as a result of various independent parts working together, elimination or disabling of even one of which would be enough to disable the entire system or organ.
For example, an ear perceives sounds only through a chain reaction of a series of smaller organs. Take out or deform one of these, e.g. one of the bones of the middle ear, and there would be no hearing whatsoever. In order for an ear to perceive a variety of components such as auditory meatus, malleous, incus and stapes bones, tympanic membrane, cochlea and fluid, sensory cells, vibration sensor extensions of these cells, net of nerves that connect to brain and hearing center in the brain have to work together without exception.
The system could not have developed in segments because none of the segments could possibly function alone at all.
Hence the concept of irreducible complexity demolishes the theory of evolution from its foundations. What is really interesting is the fact that Darwin also worried about these very prospects. He wrote in On The Origin of Species:
"If the impossibility of formation of a complex organ through a series of small changes was ever to be proven my theory would have certainly collapsed. However I could not find such an organ..." (Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species: A Facsimile of the First Edition, Harvard University Press, 1964, page 189.)
Darwin could not or might not have wanted to find such an organ at the premature levels of 19th century science. However the science of 20th century did study the nature down to minute details and proved that majority of living structures embody irreducible complexity. Therefore, Darwin's theory has most "certainly collapsed" just as he feared.
As we examine the living beings we will not only see an immense error Darwinism makes but also witness the greatness of wisdom that
these systems were created with. These mechanisms will be found anywhere from the wings of a bird to inside a bat's skull. Hence we will see the indisputable evidences of God's creation without error. Likewise, the power and faculty of God to create without error is expressed in a surah of Qur'an as follows:
"He is God - the Creator, the Maker, the Giver of Form. To Him belong the Most Beautiful Names. Everything in the heavens and earth glorifies Him. He is the Almighty, the All-Wise." (Qur'an, Al-Hashr, 59:24)